Abnormal cpk levels can be due to various reasons. CPK levels are comparatively high in the skeletal muscle, heart and the brain. So any damage to skeletal muscle heart or brain can give rise to abnormal cpk levels. But in the clinical setting the most important aspects are the skeletal muscles and the heart. In the case of abnormal cpk levels in the clinical setting the term “Abnormal cpk levels” is synonymous with elevated cpk levels. (See also - elevated cpk levels) when we talk about the skeletal muscle conditions direct trauma, exercise, polymyositis, dermatomyositis, Duchenne muscular dystrophy and etc can give rise to very high cpk values. In Duchenne muscular dystrophy cpk values can be abnormal (very high) even before the actual clinical manifestation.
After a myocardial infarction damaged myocardial cells release cpk-mb isoform of the CPK enzyme. This can give rise to abnormal CPK levels in the blood. But significance of this decreases after two days. But in addition to these many other conditions can give rise to abnormal cpk levels. So before coming to a conclusion all the differential diagnosis of a particular clinical scenario should be taken into account.
- Female 24-170 U/L
- Male 20-260 U/L
- CK-MB fraction
In Earlier days you can remember we had plaster-of-Paris back slabs we used to splint fractured limbs. Those were heavy, ugly and difficult to manipulate. Nowadays we have nice good looking material made up of fiber comes in various colors and those are light weight. These Orthopedic Supplies are developed by scientists after numerous years of research. Now we know how mechanical forces act on our body and our joins and how we should support these joints without damaging a different part of the body. Actually these new orthopedic supplies are the ones which have actually changed the field of orthopedics.
Recently I bought a Chinese GPS unit which has 7 inch display, a 600 MHz processor, 128 MB RAM and running Windows CE operating system. First I thought it as a simple GPS unit. But after going through various forums I realised that we can modify the GPS unit to do various functions. Actually manufacturers of the GPS units lock their Windows operating environment to do several defined tasks. Like GPS, calculator, movie player and MP3 player. But there is actually an Windows environment running beneath what you see. You can actually unlock it to get the maximum out of your unit. After unlocking your unit you can install software of your choice.
Back to the GPS functionality of my unit, it is actually very sensitive and has a good signal reception, it runs on SIRF 5 GPS processor. One of the best processes in the current market. My GPS is made by the company called ERODA. Their unit appeared actually very good.
Large number of people in the world is suffer from hemorrhoids. And most of the people think constipation is a major risk factor for hemorrhoids. Today we will talk more about this subject. According to Baily and love’s “short practice of surgery-25th edition” when stools are harder it requires more straining and more time sitting on the lavatory with relaxed perineum. This causes the venous plexus around the anus to get engorged and it could also obstruct the venous return. From this we can expect to have some association between hemorrhoids and constipation. But it is also mentioned in the same paragraph the epidemiological pattern of constipation differs from that of the hemorrhoids. So it means no association between hemorrhoids and constipation. But the current view about the hemorrhoids is that hemorrhoids are caused by shearing forces acting on the anus due to variety of reasons. But the most important thing is if a patient is suffering even from 1st degree hemorrhoids relieving constipation in that patient is a must. If the patient is having both constipation and hemorrhoids, constipation can really aggravate the symptoms of hemorrhoids. Actually patients with hemorrhoids are always advised by doctors to take more dietary fiber to normalize their bowel habits. As far as I believe according to the current view association between Constipation and hemorrhoids is a yes and a no.
Troponin I test
When a patient comes to the emergency room with a chest pain doctors tend to request a Troponin I test. This test is also known as TnI test. So lest talk bit more about this Troponin I test. Troponin I is a highly specific cardiac marker which is released to the blood when cardiac myocytes suffer injury. In a heart attack heart muscle cell die and after that troponin I within the muscle cells are released to the blood. By doing a Troponin I test (TnI test) doctors can get an idea whether there is an underlying cardiac muscle damage. As you can already see any injury to cardiac myocytes can cause increased levels of Troponin I. So conditions like acute or chronic conditions such as myocarditis (heart inflammation), congestive heart failure Can give rise to a positive troponin I test. The other important thing is conditions which affect the other muscles does not give rise to a positive Troponin I test. TnI test sometimes performed with other test such as CPK test or myoglobin. The other important thing is blood Troponin I levels may remain elevated even for 1-2 weeks. So even after a one week of a myocardial infarction TnI test can be positive. This is very important in diagnosing a previous heart attack.
Elevated CPK enzyme level is of great diagnostic value. CPK enzyme is a non functional plasma enzyme and in most of the times elevated levels indicates as underlying organic skeletal muscle disorder or a myocardial infarction. CPK enzyme has 3-isoforms.
CK-BB (Mainly found in the brain tissue)
CK-MB (Mainly found in the myocardial tissue)
CK-MM (Mainly found in the skeletal muscle issue)
Myocardial tissue is the only tissue that contains more than 5% of the total CK-MB activity. So elevated plasma levels of CK-MB isoform of CPK-enzyme suggest a myocardial infarction. But however this should be used along with another cardiac marker like Troponin I ot Troponin T since cpk enzymes coming from the other sources such as skeletal muscle can interfere with the interpretation of the results.
In the case of a myocardial infarction CPK enzyme levels start to rise to rise 4 to 8 hours after the onset of the chest pain and plasma CPK enzyme level reaches the peak in 24 hours.
Serum CPK enzyme is greatly elevated in many muscle disorders including Duchenne dystrophy and polymyositis.But the CPK enzyme level is not elevated in myasthenia gravis and LEMS. In muscle trauma plasma level of myoglobin is also elevated.
Labels: Elevated CPK Enzyme
E.g.: C.P.K- Heart muscle
Can eggs cause acne? This is a very interesting question. Many seek for answers. We have discussed previously about this also. So today we'll discuss about eggs and acne with more scientific evidence. A study in Jordan studied 166 patients and studied their patterns of acne. They were aged from 13 to 42. In this study they actually assessed the patient's perception about acne. 66% thought family history is positively related with acne. Most of the patients thought emotional stress, hot weather and sweating has an association with acne. Many also believed certain dietary factors such as Nuts, fatty food, fried food, chocolate, cakes as the triggering factors for acne. Many assume that the extra fat in eggs cause acne. But it is not. Even though you're not aware you can have some kind of a allergic reaction to eggs. Since acne is also caused by a complex abnormal immune response, eggs can trigger this abnormal immune response. So in some people eggs can cause acne in the others it may not cause acne at all. So to learn whether eggs are a cause of acne in you you may change your food habits. In most of the sensitive people simple reduction of the consumption of eggs may cause marked reduction in acne. Sometimes it is not the egg which causes acne, it is the way you cook it. So you may want to try changing the way you cook it. Again when we go back to the research I mentioned about you can clearly see most of the foods mentioned above have egg proteins. So probably the other things in those foods can also trigger acne. But try to understand the pathogenesis of acne is not a simple process. Even though you are sensitive to eggs, and you are avoiding eggs, but still the other factors can trigger acne.
Does stress cause acne? With modern theories and people are thinking more and more about stress and more the young people become concerned about their external appearance still one has not given a straightforward answer to the above questions. But during periods of stress such as during examination periods students tend to get more and more acne. With stress many of the body hormone levels are altered corticosteroid levels are increased, adrenaline levels are increased, also as a claim that body androgen levels are also increased during periods of stress. All these hormones alter the inflammatory status of the body. Each has a direct association with acne. So if stress causes acne one should know how to reduce the stress. Try to have a routine exercise schedule. Learn relaxation methods and breathing exercises. Try to organise your day. Meditation can also help you. But even though these things can help you if acne is reducing your self-confidence it is a good idea to meet a dermatologist and take advice. And if the stress is a big problem for you probably you can talk to a psychologist or psychiatrist. I hope I have told you something about stress and acne.
Does peanut butter cause acne?
This is another very interesting topic. For years people thought if they consume oily foods they get acne. But with the recent research they disproved this idea and said food has nothing to do with acne. Now we know some foods are associate with acne whereas the other foods are not.
Now lets talk about peanuts, peanut butter and acne.
As you know peanut is a bit oily seed and peanut butter is produced from that oil. It is 100% vegetarian. All the fatty acids in peanuts are 100% vegetable in origin and there are no hormones or growth factors which can affect the human body. But some foods of animal origin have hormones along with fatty acids which can aggravate acne. But peanut butter and peanuts do not have this property. So the link between peanut butter and acne probably a myth. In addition to that now the researchers say that the peanut butte can reduce dark spots in your face. But not by eating to achieve this affect you should apply peanut butter on your face.
Does the consumption of red meat cause acne?
Actually we have already talked about milk consumption and acne. There we pointed out the hormones in milk like androgens and IGF-1 plays a role in the development of acne. Same applies to red meat also. Red meat usually come from cow, pig or goat. Meat from all these animals contains high amounts of hormone. Actually when we talk about acne only steroid hormones are important for us.
These androgens are known to trigger acne. In addition to that we can assume that the animals produce large amount of stress hormones during slaughtering. This extra amount of stress hormones may also contribute to the development of acne. But as always for some people red meat may not trigger acne at all. But in some it will trigger acne. So you should find out which type person you are. But it is always good to avoid red meat.
Can Eggs Cause Acne?
Eggs and acne is a very hot topic. You may think that extra fat in the eggs is the item which causes acne. No its not. Eggs may cause acne but it’s not egg fat. You may already know eggs are one the top five food allergens. And you also know acne is an inflammatory and allergic condition. So as you can see eggs can contribute to acne only in some people. In the other people it may not trigger acne at all.
So if you are suffering from acne and you consume considerable amount of eggs you may need to change your food habits for some time and check the status of your acne. Actually in most of the times it is not necessary to avoid eggs completely. Reduced consumption will help in the most of the cases. And the other important thing is sometimes eggs are not the things which cause acne. It is the additives in the foods. So you may need to change the way you cook eggs. And at last don’t forget the nutritious value of the eggs because of acne. Try to balance risk of acne and egg consumption. If you have only one or two acne don’t worry about the acne at all.
Does peanut butter cause acne
Peanut is 100% plant in origin and peanut butter is prepared from the oil extracted from the peanut seeds. So peanut butter only contains fatty acids of animal origin. Peanut butter does not contain any hormones of animal origin or other cytokines which stimulates inflammation. If present, in any food, steroid hormones of animal origin can play a role in the development of acne. So now we are in a position to answer the question does peanut butter cause acne? Actually It does not cause acne. Some years people believed peanut butter causes acne. But recent researches have failed to provide any epidemiological data to support this hypothesis. So we can conclude “peanut butter does not cause acne”.