How gallstones are formed
Gallstone disease is very common in the world. Cholecystectomy, (surgical gall bladder removal) for gall stone related diseases is the most commonly performed surgery by the general surgeons. When we look into this problem we find that there are three types of gall stones in surgical practice.(pathological definition can be different) those are cholesterol stones, pigment stones and mixed stones. ) In western counties commonly cholesterol rich stones are encountered and in Asian countries pigment stones are encounters. But keep in mind mixed stones are the most common type. Classically we say fatty, fertile females in their forties and fifties are more prone to develop gall stones. Now lets look in to the risk factors for the development of gall stones.
Risk factors for cholesterol stones
High fat diet
Estrogens (Female, oral contraceptives, Pregnancy)
Impaired gall bladder emptying
Risk factors for pigment stones
How cholesterol gallstones are formed?
To keep cholesterol in solution phospholipids and bile salts are required in bile. But any relative increase in cholesterol concentration or decrease in bile salt or phospholipid concentration cause cholesterol crystals to form and precipitate. This can act as a nidus for the growth of cholesterol stones. With time layers of cholesterol are deposited around the nidus and large stones are formed.